The first thing LaTeX does when processing ordinary text is to translate your input file into a string of glyphs and spaces. To produce a printed document, this string must be broken into lines, and these lines must be broken into pages. In some environments, you do the line breaking yourself with the \\ command, but LaTeX usually does it for you.
For page numbering, see Counters
To refer to a page number in the text, see \pageref
Return to LaTeX Table of Contents