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## Waves

We have seen how a particle on a spring that creates a restoring force proportional to its displacement from an equilibrium position oscillates harmonically in time about that equilibrium. What happens if there are many particles, all connected by tiny ``springs'' to one another in an extended way? This is a good metaphor for many, many physical systems. Particles in a solid, a liquid, or a gas both attract and repel one another with forces that maintain an average particle spacing. Extended objects under tension or pressure such as strings have components that can exert forces on one another. Even fields (as we shall learn next semester) can interact so that changes in one tiny element of space create changes in a neighboring element of space.

What we observe in all of these cases is that changes in any part of the medium "propagate" to other parts of the medium in a very systematic way. The motion observed in this propagation is called a wave. We have all observed waves in our daily lives in many contexts. We have watched water waves propagate away from boats and raindrops. We listen to sound waves (music) generated by waves created on stretched strings or from tubes driven by air and transmitted invisibly through space by means of radio waves. We read these words by means of light, an electromagnetic wave. In advanced physics classes one learns that all matter is a sort of quantum wave, that indeed everything is really a manifestation of waves.

It therefore seems sensible to make a first pass at understanding waves and how they work in general, so that we can learn and understand more in future classes that go into detail.

The concept of a wave is simple - it is an extended structure that oscillates in both space and in time. We will study two kinds of waves at this point in the course:

• Transverse Waves (e.g. waves on a string). The displacement of particles in a transverse wave is perpendicular to the direction of the wave itself.
• Longitudinal Waves (e.g. sound waves). The displacement of particles in a longitudinal wave is in the same direction that the wave propagates in.
Some waves, for example water waves, are simultaneously longitudinal and transverse. Transverse waves are probably the most important waves to understand for the future; light is a transverse wave. We will therefore start by studying transverse waves in a simple context: waves on a stretched string.

Next: Waves on a String Up: Waves Previous: Wave Summary   Contents
Robert G. Brown 2004-04-12