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Fractals are sets of points that have a self-similar geometric or
statistical structure upon magnification of any part of the
set. An especially intriguing and modern fractal set of points
(although perhaps not the most spectacular from an artistic point
of view) is
the positions of 200,000 galaxies up to two billion light
years away from Earth (about 1/6 the diameter of the known
universe!) as measured recently by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Each
dot represents a separate galaxy and the color of the dot
represents that galaxy's luminosity. An analysis of these data
indicate that the baryonic matter that Earth is made of
constitutes only 5 percent (!) of the mass of the
universe. The rest of the mass consists 25 percent of "dark
matter" and 70 percent of "dark energy". What these dark
matter and energy consist of are two of the most interesting
unsolved questions of current science. And how did the expansion
of the universe and the gravitational coupling of matter to dark
matter and energy produce this unusual clustered geometric
structure?

Earlier figures shown on this page can be found
here.

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